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All aspects of normal breastfeeding and management of common problems should be covered and integrated longitudinally in the three-year residency curriculum. The American Academy of Pediatrics has developed a residency curriculum that is easily modified for use in family medicine residencies.
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Specific elective experiences in breastfeeding medicine should be made available for residents who want more intensive education. Specific support also should be provided for medical students and residents and other staff members who are breastfeeding.
Evidence shows that physicians tend to base their breastfeeding advice on their personal experiences. The United States Breastfeeding Committee USBC is an independent nonprofit coalition of more than 40 nationally influential professional, educational, and governmental organizations. For more information, visit www.
Breastfeeding is a basic and cost-effective measure that has a significant positive impact on short- and long-term health outcomes for individuals and populations. In order to establish and maintain breastfeeding, women need education and support from a knowledgeable health care community.
These core competencies in breastfeeding care and services were developed to provide health professionals with a guideline and framework to integrate evidence-based breastfeeding knowledge, skills, and attitudes into their standard health care delivery practices. The United States Breastfeeding Committee recommends that all health professionals possess the core competencies identified in this document in order to integrate breastfeeding care effectively and responsibly into current practice and thus provide effective and comprehensive services to mothers, children, and families.
Educators are in a unique position to lead the way by incorporating these core competencies into the undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate curricula of health professionals. Maternal and child health MCH education and practice is based upon a life cycle framework that recognizes that there are pivotal periods in human development that present both risks and opportunities for improving health outcomes for individuals and populations. Competence in the following areas represents the minimal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for health professionals from all disciplines to provide patient care that protects, promotes, and supports breastfeeding.
At a minimum, every health professional should understand the role of lactation, human milk, and breastfeeding in:. Regularly examine the care practices of their practitioners and establish core competencies related to breastfeeding care and services. All health professionals do not need to have the level of competence expected of those practitioners who care for childbearing women, infants, and young children.
Breastfeeding, Family Physicians Supporting (Position Paper)
Health professionals who care for childbearing women, infants, and young children can be further divided into two groups:. Those health professionals who provide primary and secondary care for childbearing women, infants, and young children should be able to:. This document was funded in part by the U. The following is a limited list of references and resources to assist family physicians in their efforts to support recommendations of the American Academy of Family Physicians AAFP position paper on breastfeeding.
The survey is administered to all hospitals and birth centers with registered maternity beds in the United States and U. Many states have comprehensive programs that support breastfeeding and breastfeeding education. Many state universities or extension services offer information, training materials, and educational opportunities for physicians and other health care professionals.
Surgeon General www.
Lawrence, Robert M. Lawrence 7th ed. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation Jan Riordan 4th ed. Briggs; Roger K. Freeman; Sumner J. Yaffe 9th ed. Hale, PhD 15th ed. Textbook of Human Lactation Thomas W. American Academy of Family Physicians www. Breastfeeding support materials and continuing medical education CME training are available. American Academy of Pediatrics www. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine www.
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Membership is open to all physicians. Annotated bibliographies. Updated regularly with some foreign translations. Breastfeeding Basics www. Wellstart International www. Wellstart provides educational opportunities for perinatal health care professionals, focusing on the scientific basis and management of human lactation. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists www.
La Leche League International www. July - Numerous resources on breastfeeding, the law, and education International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners www. International Lactation Consultants Association www. The Joint Commission www. United States Breastfeeding Committee www. World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action www.
Baby-Friendly facility designation is awarded after a comprehensive process of self-assessment, policy development, staff training, data collection, quality improvement, and BFUSA on-site assessment. Formula marketing targets women. New mothers are given free samples of formula, babies are given bottles in hospitals, coupons or food samples arrive in the mail, and booklets and videotapes are distributed on breastfeeding and weaning.
The Code prohibits marketing of these products in these ways. It covers formula, other milk products, cereals, teas, and juices, as well as bottles and teats. In , the Innocenti Declaration updated operational targets for action full text available online at www.
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Appoint a national breastfeeding coordinator with appropriate authority, and establish a multisectoral national breastfeeding committee composed of representatives from relevant government departments, nongovernmental organizations, and health care professional associations. Give effect to the principles and aim of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions in their entirety. Enact imaginative legislation protecting the breastfeeding rights of working women and establish means for its enforcement.
Develop, implement, monitor, and evaluate a comprehensive policy on infant and young child feeding, in the context of national policies and programs for nutrition, child and reproductive health, and poverty reduction. Ensure that the health and other relevant sectors protect, promote, and support exclusive breastfeeding for six months and continued breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond, while providing women access to the support they require—in the family, community, and workplace—to achieve this goal.
Promote timely, adequate, safe, and appropriate complementary feeding with continued breastfeeding. Provide guidance on feeding infants and young children in exceptionally difficult circumstances and on the related support required by mothers, families, and other caregivers.
Consider what new legislation or other suitable measures may be required, as part of a comprehensive policy on infant and young child feeding, to give effect to the principles and aim of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and to subsequent relevant Health Assembly resolutions. The Task Force works to improve the health of all Americans by making evidence-based recommendations about clinical preventive services such as screenings, counseling services, and preventive medications.
Grade: B recommendation. Date: October Breastfeeding is the recommended standard for infant feeding.
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The WHO charts reflect growth patterns among children who were predominantly breastfed for at least four months and were still breastfeeding at 12 months. History Throughout most of history, breastfeeding was the norm, with only a small number of infants not breastfed for a variety of reasons.
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Medical contraindications to breastfeeding are rare.